Role of Immunohistochemistry in Diagnostics of Prostate Cancer

Efremov G.D.

Brief definition of immunohistochemical assay was given in this article. The role of immunohistochemical assay in prostate cancer diagnostics was shown. Immunohistochemical markers were divided into two groups: marker for prostate cancer detection and markers for prostate cancer potential assessment. Detailed characteristics of most significant markers were given. In first group following markers were included: cytokeratins, p63 protein, alpha-methylacyl-CoA-racemase. Group of markers for neuroendocrinal differentiation in prostate cancer was given (chromogranin A, Synaptophysin, serotonin). Detailed description of diagnostic value of PSA, PSAP, PSMA, androgens and estrogens was given. Their role in prostate cancer pathogenesis was shown. Ki67 (proliferative activity), bcl-2 and p53(apoptosis), cadherin E and betacatenin (intercellular adhesion) et al were included into second group. Detailed description of different growth factors positive expression role was given (EGFR, IGF, VEGF, IL-8). The possibility of practical use of such markers as GLUT 1 glucose transfer protein, DNA reparation proteins was demonstrated. The role of tumor necrosis factor (TNFa) in development of androgen resistant prostate cancer was revealed. The role of endothelin 1 in low-differentiated prostate cancer and Cox-2, overexpression of which in prostate tissues suppresses apoptosis and stimulates angiogenesis, was shown. Also it's important to take into account the use of matrix proteinases and their inhibitors, that determine tumors invasive properties.

Brief analysis of immunohistochemical assay's further development in prostate cancer diagnostics was done.

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