Statistics and risk factors for urolithiasis in Belarus

Voschula V.I., Nitkin D.M., Lelyuk V.Yu., Gaponenko A.D., Schaveleva M.V., Yuraga T.M., Vladimirskaya T.E.

The article examines the main risk factors for kidney stones from the standpoint of modern ideas about the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease. The authors present the full review of the causes of possible recurrence of urolithiasis aer disintegration and elimination of the stone that must be considered in the complex prevention and metaphylaxis urolithiasis. The autors used the official statistics of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus and the available published data on the incidence of urolithiasis in the Russian Federation. The authors divided the risk factors of the recurrence of urolithiasis into three main groups: demographic, environmental factors and pathophysiological, which are examined in detail based on the literature and their data. The ethnicity, geographic location, age and gender are considered among the demographic risk factors. The impact of climate change, water intake, diet and profession are considered as the environmental factors. Among the pathophysiological risk factors - various pathological syndromes and diseases associated with metabolic disorders and increased excretion of lithogenic substances in urine. The authors analyze the morphological changes in the kidney in urolithiasis in terms of modern theories of stone formation. According to the variety of risk factors for kidney stone formation the authors come to the conclusion that there is a necessity of personalization of treatment and recommendations based on the data of detailed biochemical studies of serum and urine, as well as the results of the stone analysis.

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