Contemporary demographic situation and problems of improving the reproductive health of Russian population

Apolihin O.I., Moskaleva N.G, Komarova V.A.

We have studied the main demographic indices – the population, birth rate, death rate, infantile and maternal mortality, the indices of the reproductive health of the population for 25-year period.

The permanent population of Russian Federation at 1st January 2015 was represented by 146 270 033 individuals. During the period of 1995-2008 the decrease in the population was marked (5.7 million of people), starting from the year 2009 – increase in population (0.9 million). Since 2004 the increase in the pension age population was noticed with the decrease of the able-bodied population. The fall of the birth rate was evident since 1990 with the lowest level in 2000 (8.7‰) with the consequent tendency to growth with birth rate being 16.1‰ in 2005. Some government-induced steps led to the decrease in the death rate starting from the 2006, which reached the level of 13.1‰ in 2014. The main causes of mortality during the last 25 years were cardio-vascular diseases (56-50%), oncological diseases (17-15%) and mortality due to the external causation. The infantile mortality showed the trend downwards from 17.4 pro 1000 live births in 1990 down to 7.4 in 2014. Maternal mortality for the last five years was 25 pro 100 000 deliveries, in 2014 this index was achieved at the minimal level of 10.8 pro 100 000 deliveries. At that maternal mortality is at one third represented by the high levels of abortions.

We emphasize, that the government programs for male reproductive health protection are at this time absent. We describe the factors, which influence the reproductive potential of women and men and cause the male infertility. We present the Ministry of Health issued Conception of the population reproductive health protection.

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demographic situation in Russia, fertility, mortality, life expectancy, infertility, reproductive health, reproductive health concept.