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Number №2, 2022 - page 148-161

Vesico-vaginal fistulas: modern concepts of diagnosis and treatment DOI: 10.29188/2222-8543-2022-15-2-148-161

For citation: Suchkov D.A., Shakhaliev R.A., Shkarupa D.D., Shkarupa A.G., Kubin N.D., Gadzhiev N.K., Shulgin A.S. Vesico-vaginal fistulas: modern concepts of diagnosis and treatment. Experimental and Clinical Urology, 2022;15(2)148-161; https://doi.org/10.29188/2222-8543-2022-15-2-148-161
Suchkov D.A., Shakhaliev R.A., Shkarupa D.D., Shkarupa A.G., Kubin N.D., Gadzhiev N.K., Shulgin A.S.
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  • Suchkov D.A. – urologist of the department of urology of N.I. Pirogov clinic of advanced medical technologies of St. Petersburg State University; Saint-Petersburg, Russia; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0649-9434
  • Shakhaliev R.A. – Dr.Sc.; obstetrician-gynecologist of the department of urology of N.I. Pirogov Clinic of advanced medical technologies of St. Petersburg State University; Saint-Petersburg, Russia; https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2450-7044
  • Shkarupa D.D. – Dr.Sc., PhD; deputy director for medical care, chief urologist of N.I.Pirogov Clinic of advanced medical technologies of St. Petersburg State University; Saint-Petersburg, Russia; https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0489-3451
  • Shkarupa A.G. – head of urology department of N.I. Pirogov Clinic of advanced medical technologies of St. Petersburg State University; Saint-Petersburg, Russia; https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0267-9435
  • Kubin N.D. – Dr.Sc., urologist of the department of urology of N.I. Pirogov Clinic of advanced medical technologies of St. Petersburg State University; Saint-Petersburg, Russia; https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5189-4639
  • Gadzhiev N.K. – Dr.Sc., deputy director for urology of N.I.Pirogov Clinic of advanced medical technologies of St. Petersburg State University; Saint-Petersburg, Russia; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6255-0193
  • Shulgin A. S. – PhD, urologist of the department of urology of N. I. Pirogov Clinic of advanced medical technologies of St. Petersburg State University; Saint-Petersburg, Russia; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8655-7234
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Introduction. Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a pathological communication between the urinary bladder and the vagina. The lack of common approaches to the treatment choice, its timing and postoperative management of patients makes this disorder one of the challenges of modern urogynecology.

Materials and methods. Relevant publications were searched using the PubMed database, the Google Scholar search system, and the scientific electronic library eLibrary.ru.

Results. VVF is the most common form of urogenital fistulas. In developed countries, the formation of VVF mainly are the result of surgical trauma or radiation therapy, but in developing ones the majority of VVF have an obstetric etiology. There are different classifications of VVF; however, there is no overall accepted one that is suitable for predicting treatment efficacy and long-term outcomes regardless of etiology of VVF. Treatment of VVF with long-term bladder drainage should be performed only for small, benign and unformed VVF. Surgical closure of VVF is the primary method of treatment. Surgery can be performed using abdominal and vaginal access. Regardless of the access, a positive result (closure of the fistula) on average is achieved in 90,8% of cases. The treatment of post-radiation fistulas is more challenged and associated with a high failure rate.

Conclusion. Despite of the variety of VVF treatment options, unfortunately, there is no the perfect one yet due to the variability of VVF ethiology, the lack of unified curative approaches and the shortage of studies comparing different therapies.

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vesicovaginal fistula; urogenital fistula; genitourinary fistula; diagnosis; fistuloplasty

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