Introduction. Currently, there are conflicting reports in the literature about the impact of COVID-19 on male and female reproductive health, as well as the impact of hormonal status on the course of the disease. The basis for such concern is the high density of ACE2 receptors involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 on the surface of cells of the reproductive organs.
Purpose. To evaluate the effect of sex hormone levels on the course of COVID-19 in men and women, as well as the effect of COVID-19 on spermatogenesis.
Materials and methods. The study included 12 men and 12 women of reproductive age (18-55 years for men and 18-45 years for women), who underwent hospitalization for COVID-19. Male patients underwent an analysis of the ejaculate (at admission and after 3 months, a study of the ejaculate for SARS-CoV-2 by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR test), as well as a blood test for hormones (total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, inhibin B). Women in the study underwent a blood test for hormones (SHBG, LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, progesterone), as well as ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs.
Results. Among the group of male patients, a statistically significant relationship was found between the level of total testosterone and the level of C-reactive protein (r=0.66; p=0.02), as well as between the level of estradiol and the need for oxygenation (r=0.751; p=0.005). The presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the sperm was not detected. In the women's group, a negative relationship was found between total testosterone levels and the need for oxygen therapy (r= -0.62; p=0.03). No other influence of the hormonal background on the parameters of the course of the disease was found. There were no reliable changes in ejaculate parameters within 3 months after suffering COVID-19.
Conlusions. We did not find a significant effect of mild forms of COVID-19 on the reproductive health of men and women.