The aim of this paper is to analyze up-to-date literature related to studies on renal regeneration in the condition of ischemic or toxic damage. The review analyzes the data on the presence and identification of stem/progenitor cells in the kidneys of adult males. These cells are present in different kidney structures (glomeruli, renal ducts). However, their leading role in the regeneration of damaged kidney structures has recently become open to doubt. New data is being accumulated, indicating that dedifferentiation of mature renal cells and their subsequent proliferation and differentiation into particular cell lines (podocytes, epitheliocytes, endotheliocytes) also play an important role. Mechanisms, which activate this process, especially the impact of components of dead cells and the influence of resident stem cells and their secretion products, are discussed.
The paper also provides the analysis of the role of microcirculation impairment combined with ischemic or toxic kidney damage, as well as the influence of cellular therapy on the recovery of microcirculation and regenerative potential of the damaged organ.
Therapeutic effectiveness of cellular therapy or biologically active compounds derived from stem/progenitor cells secretions is evaluated in terms of the recovery of damaged kidney function. It was demonstrated that secretions from stem/progenitor cells, derived from their cultivation, are equally effective as the use of the cells.
Authors declare lack of the possible conflicts of interests.