Introduction. Various diseases and injuries of the central or peripheral nervous system can lead to the neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) development. There is no information on the number of patients with neurogenic bladder in the general population, which leads to an underestimation of the neurogenic urinary disorders prevalence.
Aim. The purpose of this study was to analyze the current data on the epidemiology of NLUTD of various etiologies in adults, as well as to summarize the existing information about the nature of urodynamic disorders and the complications rate depending on the neurogenic dysfunction cause.
Materials and methods. A literature search was carried out using electronic databases (eLibrary, Google Scholar, Cochrane, PubMed, etc.) for the following keywords: «neurogenic bladder», «neurogenic dysfunction of the lower urinary tract», «bladder neuropathy», etc. Articles, containing information about the epidemiology and nature of NLUTD of various etiologies in adults, were selected. Analysis of 61 printed studies was carried out.
Results. According to rough calculations, based on the prevalence of only some neurological diseases accompanied by urinary disorders, the number of patients with neurogenic bladder in the Russian Federation presents at least 1.5 million people. In the Russian Federation, there are about 200 thousand people with traumatic spinal cord disease - the frequency of NLUTD among patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) reaches 70-95%. Out of 10,000 newborns, 3-4 have malformations of the spinal cord, the bladder function is impaired in 80-96% of them. In the Russian Federation, there are about 150 thousand patients with multiple sclerosis and more than 200 thousand with Parkinson's disease, 40-90% and 30-70% of them develop urinary disorders, respectively. Many of the patients may have serious complications of NLUTD and require specialized care and technical rehabilitation tools.
Conclusions. Many widespread in the population neurological diseases are typically accompanied by urinary disorders. Patients with neurogenic bladder require specialized care, the availability of which in the Russian Federation does not correspond to the number of patients with NLUTD.