The social significance of urolithiasis in recent years, finds a new urgency to the global changes in the health of the world population. Tendency of progressive increase in the prevalence of the urolithiasis is obvious, which requires the development of highly efficient methods of prevention and minimally invasive methods of treatment. In recent years there has been a multi-disciplinary approach to the study of the urolithiasis due to principles of evidence based medicine. Possibility of imaging the spatial arrangement of stones, their true size, density, features of the architectonics of the renal pelvis system in recent years have expanded with the introduction of multislice computed tomography, which has a function of a three-dimensional image reconstruction. The substantial progress made in the surgical treatment of urolithiasis in recent years, based on a broad introduction into clinical practice of innovative technologies for access to concrements through natural ways and their efficient disintegration. The most notable achievements in recent years in the active treatment of urolithiasis are certainly related to the rapid development of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). There was a significant decline in the share of "open" surgery.
Summarizing the analysis of developments in recent years in the treatment of kidney stones should be noted that innovation and widespread adoption of minimally invasive technologies in clinical practice will significantly increase the effectiveness of treatment for these patients with lower risk of complications and improve of quality of life in the postoperative period.
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