Retrograde ejaculation is a retrograde propulsion of seminal fluid during expulsion and often a cause of male infertility. In this review we discuss the main therapeutic options for this problem, including the assisted reproductive technologies (AST) and their efficacy for pregnancy achievement and healthy birth in patients with retrograde ejaculation.
Drawing a conclusion, the uniform algorithm of treatment for patients with retrograde ejaculation (including the AST) is nowadays absent. The strict evidence for evaluation and comparison of existing techniques is lacking. Further studies are warranted in this clinical aspect of male infertility