In this review article we have analyzed the results of major contemporary investigations that concern kidney cancer biomarkers searching. Thanks to the new scientific achievements in fields of genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry and by using of novel diagnostic technologies it became possible to determine cancerspecific components concentrations in tissues and biological fluids.
Depending on the analyzing sample nature, may differentiate three groups of potential tumor markers in kidney cancer detecting and diagnosing: 1) tissue-based markers; 2) blood-based markers; 3) urine markers. Based on the utility of markers, it may be easiest to divide them on the following categories: 1) early detection markers; 2) diagnostic markers; 3) prognostic markers; 4) predictive markers. The proved value in kidney cancer diagnosing belongs to tissuebased markers (VEGF, HIF-1 alpha, miR, Survivin, mTOR, CAIX, PTEN, caveolin-1) and to blood-based markers (VEGF, CAIX, miR). MiR profiling demonstrates high specifity and makes enable to diagnose primary tumor, presence of metastatic lesions, to determine hystologic type of kidney cancer as before surgery or in postoperative period.
Blood-based markers appear to be the most useful among the all due to simplicity of analyzing process. Most presented clinical markers need further clinical validation, especially in prospective studies. The search of universal early detection kidney cancer biomarker continues.
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