Modern possibilities of surgery, remote lithotripsy and drug therapy can effectively save the patient from the stone. However, none of the above methods of treatment of urolithiasis solves the problem of carcinogenesis in stone formation, which requires further research in this direction. The supersaturation of concentrated carcinogens with urinary stones can play a crucial role in carcinogenesis. Moreover, chronic obstruction, inflammation or infection caused by urinary stones can promote tumor growth. Irritation of urothelia and infection cause the migration of immunocompetent cells (including neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, mast cells and lymphocytes) to the injury site. Lymphocytes secrete a large number of cytokines and chemokines that promote the growth of neoplastic cells and contribute to the emergence and progression of cancer. However, prolonged exposure to inflammation and the accumulation of carcinogens, even with asymptomatic urinary stones, can lead to the subsequent development of cancer.
Author declare lack of the possible conflicts of interests