The impetuous growth of the minimally invasive technologies in the medicine during the last years led to the fact that the modern surgery is very difficult to imagine without drainage devices. The spectrum of the diseases, where the stents could be applied, is widening. Nevertheless, the objective unresolved problems are linked to the stenting, which serve as the force for the development and modernization of the stents, accompanying delivery and removal systems, for the search of new methods of stenting and new materials, which could optimize their usage. This review outlines the main tendencies in the development and optimization of the urological stents. The materials used for the production of the stents are presented with the description of the main advantages and disadvantages in case of polymeric and metallic stents. The biodegradable materials are reviewed as for the modern evidence level. The publications to the construction and the fixation of the stents are also presented. The main complications are outlined: migration, obstruction, bacterial contamination and other. The main research directions are selected in the areas of antibacterial, antiproliferative and antiadgesive coverage, the modern publications are presented.
Drawing a conclusion, the implementation of the urological stents led to their wide acceptance, decreased the operation-related traumatisms and the probability of the complications, in selected areas had dramatically changed the tactics of the treatment. Nevertheless, the disadvantages are also there, which warrant the development of constructively new devices and the search of new materials and covering agents.
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