Th e article covers the debate about prostatic structure on the assumption of benign hyperplasia. Terminological questions have been discussed and it has been exposed that the most correct term to use is «prostatic hypertrophy » or «prostatic hyperplasia », the last one – as a morphological process, underlying hypertrophy. Morphogenetic phases of processes, underlying benign hyperplasia, have been defi ned. Th e base of these processes is forming of proliferative centers which are morphologically analogous to Samb`s nests in mammary. Proliferative centers go through 5 developmental stages. Each of these stages has its own qualitative attribute that distinguishes it from the previous one. Finally, the increase of proliferative activity, conversing from the fi rst to the fi ft h developmental stage of proliferative centers, has been objectively shown. Th e article also includes the discussion of questions about forming in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and peculiarities of its morphological variants. Besides, the article presents different variants of atypical hyperplasia and their prognostic value both as intraepithelial neoplasia and atypical hyperplasia. Th e option of the most eff ective treatment mode (operative or therapeutic) of prostate gland on the assumption of benign hyperplasia has been shown. Th ereby, morphological research of prostate gland is one of the most eff ective methods of objectifi cation of the choice of benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment.