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Number №1, 2023 - page 174-187

Modern markers for determining the functional ability of the kidneys in urological practice DOI: 10.29188/2222-8543-2023-16-1-174-187

For citation: Kazachenko A.V., Voytko D.A., Prosyannikov M.Yu., Konstantinova O.V., Anokhin N.V., Apolikhin O.I., Kaprin A.D. Modern markers for determining the functional ability of the kidneys in urological practice. Experimental and Clinical Urology 2023;16(1):174-187; https://doi.org/10.29188/2222-8543-2023-16-1-174-187
A.V. Kazachenko, D.A. Voytko, M.Yu. Prosyannikov, O.V. Konstantinova, N.V Anohin, O.I. Apolihin, A.D. Kaprin
Information about authors:
  • Kazachenko A.V. – Dr. Sci., Deputy Director for Medical Work of N. Lopatkin Scientific Research Institute of Urology and Interventional Radiology – Branch of the National Medical Research Centre of Radiology of the Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, professor of the Department of Urology and Operative Nephrology with a course of oncourology of RUDN University; Moscow, Russia; RSCI AuthorID 334714; https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3198-5933
  • Voytko D.A. – PhD, Senior Researcher of N. Lopatkin Scientific Research Institute of Urology and Interventional Radiology – branch of the National Medical Research Centre of Radiology of Ministry of health of Russian Federation; Moscow, Russia; RSCI AuthorID 942353; https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1292-1651
  • Prosyannikov M.Yu. – PhD, head of the department of N. Lopatkin Scientific Research Institute of urology and Interventional Radiology – branch of the National Medical Research Centre of Radiology of Ministry of health of Russian Federation; Moscow, Russia; RSCI Author ID 791050; https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3635-5244
  • Konstantinova O.V. – Dr. Sci., Chief Researcher at the Department of urolithiasis of N.A. Lopatkin Scientific Research Institute of Urology and Interventional Radiology – Branch of the National Medical Research Centre of Radiology of the Ministry of Health of Russian Federation; Moscow, Russia; RSCI AuthorID 679965; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2214-7543
  • Anokhin N.V. –PhD., Senior Researcher at the Department of urolithiasis of N. Lopatkin Scientific Research Institute of Urology and Interventional Radiology – Branch of the National Medical Research Radiological Centre; Moscow, Russia; RSCI AuthorID 8807749; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4341-4276
  • Apolikhin O.I. – Dr. Sci, professor, сor.-member of RAS, director of N. Lopatkin Research Institute of urology and Interventional Radiology – branch of the National Medical Research Centre of Radiology of Ministry of health of Russian Federation; Moscow, Russia; RSCI Author ID 683661; https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0206-043X
  • Kaprin A.D. – Dr. Sci., professor, academician of RAS, general director of the National Medical Research Centre of Radiology of Ministry of health of Russian Federation; Obninsk, Russia; director of P. Herzen Institution – branch of the National Medical Research Centre of Radiology of Ministry of health of Russian Federation. Head of Department of Oncology and Radiology named after V.P. Kharchenko of RUDN University; Moscow, Russia; RSCI AuthorID 96775; https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8784-8415
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Introduction. Over the past decade, there has been a progressive increase in the number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Early diagnosis of renal insufficiency allows to prevent irreversible consequences leading to disability and significant medical and economic costs.

Purpose: to analyze modern markers for determining the functional ability of the kidneys.

Materials and methods. A search was carried out in PubMed and Library, according to the keywords creatinine, urea, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), clearance, formulas for calculating creatinine clearance, cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, β-bound protein, NGAL, KIM-1, chronic kidney disease, chronic renal failure, urolithiasis. We found 389 sources no older than 10 years (published after 2012) that were relevant to the topic of the review. 80 articles were selected directly for citation in the review.

Results. GFR assessment and detection of albuminuria are the most effective methods, but biomarkers used to calculate GFR are subject to a number of factors and do not allow assessing kidney function in real time. For early prediction of acute renal injury, the most suitable biomarkers are considered to be: NGAL and KIM-1 and IL-18. Equations combining cystatin C and creatinine r work better than equations using only cystatin C or creatinine, especially in situations where it is necessary to confirm chronic kidney disease. The combination of creatinine, cystatin C and the ratio of urine albumin to creatinine improves the stratification of the risk of progression of kidney disease and mortality. The latest developments in biomarkers allow us to hope that in the near future the assessment of the functional ability of the kidneys will be carried out in real time and will become a general clinical practice of a modern doctor.

Conclusion. Modern biomarkers of the functional ability of the kidneys allow not only to evaluate the function, but also to screen for diseases, conduct differential diagnosis, and evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. The modern approach to the diagnosis of renal dysfunction should be based not only on its diagnosis, but also on determining the topic of nephron damage.

 

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markers of kidney function; creatinine; urea; glomerular filtration rate; clearance; formulas for calculating creatinine clearance; cystatin C; β2-microglobulin; β-bound protein; NGAL; KIM-1; chronic kidney disease; chronic renal failure; urolithiasis

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