Introduction. In recent years, the number of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) who undergo kidney transplantation without nephrectomy has increased. The most frequent and adverse complication from your own kidneys is infection of cysts (IC). This dictates the need to predict the probability of IC and determine diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in this category of patients.
Materials and methods. The results of observation and treatment of 55 patients with ADPKD who underwent kidney transplantation from 2000 to 2019 without prior nephrectomy were evaluated.
Results. Bilateral nephrectomy in connection with IC was performed in 10 (18.1%) patients, and one patient died from sepsis progression. Burdened urological history (kidney operations for suppuration of cysts and recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI)) significantly increased the chances of nephrectomy for IC by 6.8 times (AOR 6.83; 95% CI 1.34-34.8; p=0.021). The median time from kidney transplantation to nephrectomy was 7 months (Q1-Q3: 2-8). Acute graf pyelonephritis was associated with IR (p=0.045) in single-factor analysis. Forty-five patients are under observation, with a median follow-up of 41 months (Q1-Q3: 19-76). Seventeen patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging using diffusely weighted image protocols (MRI-DWI). MR-signs of infection were detected in 5 patients. Given the absence of clinical and laboratory manifestations of inflammation, nephrectomy was not performed. Further followup did not indicate the development of clinical and laboratory signs of UTI in any case.
Discussion. As our study and a number of other studies have shown, in patients with ADPKD after kidney transplantation, the most frequent indication for nephrectomy is inflammatory changes in their own kidneys. Patients with a history of severe pyelonephritis or IC who previously had pyelonephritis or IC before kidney transplantation are at risk for developing inflammatory changes after kidney transplantation, and it does not matter how long ago they had a history of pyelonephritis attacks or kidney surgery. This fact should be taken into account before kidney transplantation and offer patients a nephrectomy before kidney transplantation. Our work is consistent with a number of non-numerous publications that have shown that in the diagnosis of IC, the most informative non-invasive, imaging method is MRI of the kidneys, but this method has low specificity, which can lead to an increase in the number of false positive conclusions and an increase in the number of unjustified nephrectomies.
Conclusion. The predictor of infection of own kidney cysts after transplantation is a burdened urological history. MRI DWI has high sensitivity and low specificity in the diagnosis of IR in ADPKD. When identifying single cysts with MR-signs of infection in the absence of clinical, laboratory manifestations of UTI, nephrectomy is not indicated.