Efficacy of cryodestruction depending on the qualitative and quantitative settings of the freezing and thawing

Govorov A.V., Vasil'ev A.O., Kovylina M.V., Prilepskaya E.A., Kovnackaya G.A., Pushkar' D.Yu.

The effectiveness of cryodestruction of the tissues depends on the quality of visualization of the process, of fast freezing and slow process of thawing, and also of repeating of the freeze-thaw cycles. The main factors that have a damaging effect on the tissue under the influence of low temperatures are: formation of intracellular and extracellular ice crystals, increase of the concentration of electrolytes and mechanical damage of structural components of cells. Thermal parameters used in the past with cryotherapy were inaccurate, leading to treatment failure. Conducted modern theoretical and experimental studies in vitro/in vivo showed that the achievement a temperature minus 40° C is lethal to cancer cells. Experimental studies on biological models have related to the limitations that are caused by the activation of hydrolytic enzymes in response to the extinction of the life of the organism. Disorganization of enzyme systems are leading to a shift of the pH to the acid side and causing the collapse of the biological structures of the body (autolysis). Despite the fact that currently becomes cryosurgery a perspective treatment of various cancers, its application is not possible without experimental verification. According to the results of our own research, first facts were obtained on the characteristics of low temperature cryodestruction effect, also there were revealed dependence of cryogenic treatment results on the used variety of instructional techniques and guidance. Determination of the critical temperature threshold values for the cell death, as well as understanding the processes of freezing and thawing can significantly increase the effectiveness of the procedure.

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