Markers for prostate cancer diagnostics: GSTπ1 RARβ2 and RASSF1A. Results from a study

Sivkov A.V., Keshishev N.G., Merinova O.V., Severin S.E., Savvateeva M.V., Kuznecova E.M., Raevskaya A.A., Kaprin A.D.

Introduction. 30 years ago, the PSA test made a radical change in prostate cancer diagnostics. However, today there is hard data indicating its limited diagnostic relevance of this marker. A search for new markers of prostate cancer and development of test systems on their basis is becoming relevant.

Materials and methods. The clinical material for the study was represented by the results of examining 135 patients with PSA blood level ranging from 4 to 10 ng/ml and also from 22 healthy volunteers. The following types of biological materials were chosen: blood, urine after digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostate biopsy. PCR was used to determine the changes in methylation status of GSTn1, RAR/32 and RASSF1A promoter regions.

Results and discussion. The mean age of patients with benign prostate diseases was 66.62 ± 7.98 years [M ± m] (41-82). Sensitivity, specificity and prognostic values of positive and negative results of determination of methylation status of GSTn1, RARj$2 and RASSF1A promoter regions constitute 88.9%, 84.3%, 49.5% and 95.6% (for prostate tissue analysis); 77.8%, 58.3%, 26.2% and 86% (for blood analysis) and 74.1%, 52.8%, 25.1% and 86.5% (for urine samples analysis after prostate massage), respectively. When diagnostic properties of blood-determined GSTnl, RAR/32 and RASSF1A markers are compared with PSA, the specificity of this diagnostic system is higher than the PSA test specificity (58.3% versus 13.9%, р<0.05). Expression of the investigated markers in biological media does not correlate with the stage of the disease and differentiation status (according to Gleason score).

Results. Simultaneous detection of molecular genetic markers, such as GSTnl, RARj32 and RASSF1A, regarded as an optimal way for it diagnostics of prostate cancer and provides an indepth characterization of genetic changes and is, if considering extreme heterogeneity and multifactorial nature of prostate diseases.

Authors declare lack of the possible conflicts of interest

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prostate cancer, screening, diagnosis, tumor markers, molecular markers, DNA markers, GSTπ1, RARβ2 and RASSF1A